However, here are some rules that can help: 1. The case is the info that actually matters; gender is just part & parcel with each German noun (but doesn’t actually carry any meaning). The first experiment on German examined and directly compared processing of derived -ung nouns (e.g., Gründung ‘foundation’) and inflected -t past participles (e.g., gegründet ‘founded’), whereas the second one investigated the processing of regular and irregular plural forms (-s forms such as Autos ‘cars’ and -er forms such as Kinder ‘children’, respectively). Masculine and neuter singular nouns that end in -er either add an umlaut or change nothing at all. Plurals Likewise, refers specifically to . We present evidence that mental rules are indispensible. favor of the latter only if, in addition, D. lexicalized plural form, all other items shift to class A. as long as they stay with a singular form ending in schwa. If you do find a mistake though, contact me and I will fix it immediately. Learn everything you need to know about the formation of plural nouns in German on Lingolia and test your knowledge in the exercises. German nouns can be masculine, feminine or neuter. subclasses that will not be discussed before section 4. Nouns Thank you! 1995). Ez utóbbi szerepük összefügg a többes számú inflexió markergazdagságával. Plurals in the native stratum of German nouns exhibit a complex interlacing of arbitrary lexical classes and virtually exceptionless generalizations across them. Nouns that end in -in (such as the female equivalents of masculine nouns) add -nen. Thus while it is not fully predictable phonologically or semantically which suffix allomorph a plural noun takes and whether it undergoes umlaut (vowel fronting), specific suffixes consistently trigger or block umlaut (Augst 1979; Wurzel 1998; Wunderlich 1999), and all plural forms obey a fixed prosodic template (Wiese 1996b, 2009). Learn Spanish, French, German, Italian, Mandarin Chinese and English with authentic videos by Yabla that include subtitles and translations. Plural nouns in German are unpredictable, so it's best to memorize the plural form with the singular. But the third example, in which the participle is in the masculine plural, clearly, In this paper we advocate a minimal characterization of inflectional morphology as a combinatorial system of underspecified stems and affixes which is controlled by a hierarchy of categories, by general principles of affixation, and by principles that regulate paradigm structures. Particularly interesting, ... Plural formation in German is much more complicated than plural formation in, for example, English so that there used to be claims as mentioned Wiese (2000, p. 142) that it is "not rule-governed and defies formal description". form with the singular. (A few nouns ending in. Download German grammar cheat sheet for beginners (PDF) How to guess the gender of German nouns (+printable exercise) The concept of a grammar cheat sheet is very simple and you can easily create it by yourself. Several factors have been argued to affect morphological processing including, for instance, morphological structure of a word (e.g., existence of allomorphic stem alternations) and its linguistic nature (e.g., whether it is a derived word or an inflected word form). ‘tractors’) - in terms of both individual and dialectal variation. problematic plural classes is in fact plural vacillation due to unranked constraints. Seriously.) In contrast to -s, all other noun plurals (-e, -er, -n and unmarked) are said to be irregular and stored as full forms in the mental lexicon. In German, plural nouns are formed in a ton of different ways. been advocated in the literature, and thus shows some obverlap between these accounts. This feature is always associated in the plural, as required by. This target article provides evidence for the dual nature of the language faculty by describing recent results of a multidisciplinary investigation of German inflection. It is suggested that more differentiated psycholinguistic experiments can identify these regularities. turn out optimal with an n-plural, as shown in (19c). 19. donkey - donkeys 20. ray - rays 21. toy - toys 22.alley - alleys 23. tray - trays 24.turkey - turkeys When a noun ends with the letter(s) f or fe, change the f or fe to an v and add es. Here are a few things to know about German nouns that can help you spot them as you read or listen: (1) Nouns are a person, location, object or concept.Examples of this include der Freund (friend), die Stadt (city), der Ball (ball) and die Freiheit (freedom). Our data will enrich the development of materials for the assessment of morpho-lexical impairments in aphasia. These latter results indicate that initial stages of morphological processing investigated here by means of the masked priming paradigm persist in older age. Therefore, one can state the following regular class of nouns: or untypical, a distinction that only weakly correlates with more native vs. more unnativ. Alternatively, a pattern associator memory (such as a connectionist network) might record all past tense forms and generalize to new ones by similarity; irregular and regular patterns would differ only because of their different numbers of verbs. Find a list of German plural nouns using our free online dictionary. because they are not crucial for the result. According to another account, however, fully predictable German plural forms are also generated by a rule-based process, such as one subtype of the Germann plural (feminine nouns, ending on schwa) (Penke & Krause, 2002; see also Wiese, 1996; Kilbury, James (1999) German noun plural revisited. -plural. A dolgozat ezt a négy jellemzőt mutatja be a hagyományos leíró német nyelvtan eszköztárával. depending on frequency, register and style. Many nouns with a stem 1 dicembre 2020 Senza categoria Senza categoria While subregularities are represented by structured lexical entries which take the form of non-monotonic inheritance trees, regular affixation is assumed to be a monotonic operation. Plural: grammar exercises. We therefore may state the following subclass of B. Filze, Witze, Lose, Risse, Asse, Autobusse. All rights reserved. In this study, I investigated the acquisition of L2 German plural allomorphy by means of a written task of classroom learners in North America. different endings are possible. Some nouns have no singular form. These two processing routes correspond to the dual structure of the linguistic system. In addition to these five different endings, unmarked plurals and plurals on -er, and -e can show umlauting of the stem vowel. I argue that these data are consistent with models showing that interlanguage phonologies are governed by universal phonological principals. In this paper we describe the system submitted by UHH to the CoNLL--SIGMORPHON 2018 Shared Task: Universal Morphological Reinflection. In German, nouns are identified in a sentence as masculine (der), feminine (die), and neuter (das). Whereas level 2 and level 1 affixes may precede the derivational suffix -schaft, -s plural cannot (e.g., Studenten-schaft, Völk-er-schaft or Ärzt-e-schaft). including those that are problematic for DATR and MM. (e.g., igraju – igrat’ ‘to play’ vs. košu – kosit’ ‘to mow’) was examined. If you have doubts about the accuracy consult a dictionary or Google Translate, and you will vouch for the accuracy. The most problematic data for the German plural formati. nouns ending in the stressed syllable /(C)et/ are. In children's language, we have also found these two processes to be clearly dissociated; regular and irregular inflection are used under different circumstances, and the constraints under which children apply them are identical to those of the adult linguistic system. It’s also a good thing that humans invented flashcards! You simply have to add the endings “-n/-en, -e, -e/-er, -s” to your noun in the singular form. 1999). Many masculine plural nouns ending in -e add an Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Download the first ten pages of German Language Tutorial (including the table of contents). Centre for General Linguistics, Berlin, Germany. In particular, I would like to thank Jhanna Bar#dal for. Visitors can now use a large number of German declined nouns in all four cases in singular and plural – well arranged and easy to understand. In this post we will be looking at the guidlines for das words. The data show that the learners made many errors but that the number of forms which suggested a violation of a universal property were statistically insignificant. All these nouns (including the feminine ones), therefore, are not typical for this grammatical class. Ricerca per: list of german nouns with gender and plurals pdf. umlaut as well, but neuter plural nouns ending in -e don't. German nouns are frequently altered significantly when moving from the singular to the plural form, and the alteration is sometimes more complicated than adding an "s" or an "es" as one would in English. Older people may have to recruit a wider brain network than younger individuals, for example. The word list starts on page 83 in the PDF. Finally the structure of paradigms is illustrated in some detail with an analysis of the subject agreement morphology of the verb in Classical Arabic. In experiments on Russian, the processing of derived -ost’ nouns (e.g., glupost’ ‘stupidity’) and of inflected forms with and without allomorphic stem alternations in 1P.Sg.Pr. If the two types of -n-plurals were both stored irregular forms, as predicted by the Dual-Mechanism Model, no different error-rates between the 2 types of -n-plurals should occur. 1996). of Düsseldorf, Presently, I am studying arguments why human language must have come into being via sign languages: these languages allow a natural transition from simultaneous gestures to composition, and from ic, In this paper, we consider the predictions the Dual-Mechanism Model makes concerning the representation of German noun plurals in the mental lexicon. 1997). Plurals without singulars. Some nouns do not have any plural endings. (16) shows an (incomplete) list of, Mooto, Radio, Salto, Torpedo, Trio, Zigarillo, of their status as typical or untypical. Gabeln, Muttern, Nachbarn, Feen, Drogerien. incompatible, although they react to empirical problems in different ways. Achieving the same performance as a younger individual in a behavioral task may not necessarily mean that the same neural processes are involved. follows from the assumption that these nouns are typical by their relation to a verb. Plural nouns use these and those. However, here are some rules that can help: 1. Recent studies claim that processing mechanisms could also differ between older and younger adults (Clahsen & Reifegerste, 2017; Reifegerste, Meyer, & Zwitserlood, 2017). Plurals. 1 revealed a significant plural dominance effect in spoken picture naming across five German speakers with aphasia: a singular advantage was observed for singular-dominant nouns, but plural-dominant singular and plural nouns did not differ. Kontrasztív nyelvészeti/tipológiai szempontból külön figyelmet érdemel (i) analitikus és (ii) agglutináló jellege, (iii) polifunkcionalitása és (iv) markergazdagsága. machinery, illustrating it with facts from the inflectional morphology of the German verb. I will return to this question in section 4. German Language Tutorial includes a vocabulary and grammar review of the German language, with German realia photos taken in Germany and Austria so you can see how the language is used in real life. affect some parts of an overall-system of plural formati, affix-based system may interplay with prosodic constraints. It shouldn’t be too long, the best is just one A4 page. NOT "a) see the word and b) see the answer". 2 tested for effects of number and predictability, using subsets of fully predictable and non-predictable –n plurals, and their corresponding singulars. And there's not really any rule to give you a clue which one you should use, so you have to memorize the plural form of each noun as you learn it. Exp. 1995, Wiese 1996). The resulting system is a language-agnostic network model that aims to reduce the number of learned edit operations by introducing equivalence classes over graphical features of individual characters. 1 tested for effects of number and plural dominance in naming fully predictable –n plurals and their corresponding singulars. Plural nouns in German are unpredictable, so it's best to memorize the plural I thought I'd share it on here for anyone else who may be interested. In this paper, we will present data from an elicitation task conducted with 9 German Broca's aphasics and from a lexical-decision experiment with unimpaired subjects. ranges, and thus may acquire an uninflected dative or accusative form. Although there are many lists on the internet, they are mostly up to a 100 words, with word explanations examples, with missing articles etc. 2, no effect of predictability for the German plural affix –n was found, but an overall singular advantage across both groups. You only need to click the German flag in the dictionary so that the German dictionary is selected, then enter the noun. Der/das/die and Ein-word endings (including endings for the possessive adjectives mein, dein, sein, ihr, unser, euer) Maskulin Neutrum Feminin Plural Nominativ der ein (==>mein, dein, Instead, our findings are more consistent with approaches positing a contrast between combinatorial, rule-based and lexically-stored forms (Clahsen, Sonnenstuhl, & Blevins, 2003). This is the second of a series of three papers that, taken together, will give an essentially complete account of inflection in standard German. We argue that lexical gaps arise when language learners fail to find productive rules in a morphological domain. None of the words are new – they are all taken from the lists of the last three weeks, so you can go back to your notes, or The German participle -t applies to a much smaller percentage of verbs than its English counterpart, and the German plural -s applies to a small minority of nouns. Nouns in plural. In this paper we present that part of the account that covers nouns, one that captures all the regularities, subregularities and irregularities that are involved, but with a focus on the subregularities. When a noun is given out of context (as in a vocabulary list), these are usually distinguished by including the nominative article: der (masculine), die (feminine) or das (neuter). German dialects in section 5, we note that it is the –e-plural class of nouns which shows zero plurals or even subtractive plurals in many dialects; see Golston and Wiese (1996), Holsinger and Houseman (1999) and Knaus (2003) for discussion of subtractive plural in German dialects. German neuter nouns : The third gender in German is neuter. I am grateful to Ingrid Kaufmann, Gereon Mller, Albert Ortmann, Barbara Stiebels, an anonymous reviewer and the editors of this volume for their comments, as well as to Kristjn rnason, Jhannes Jnsson, and Sigga Sigurjnsdttir for their judgements. The results obtained on this research issue are twofold. On the one hand, the data demonstrate effects of ageing on general measures of language performance, i.e., overall longer reaction times and/or higher accuracy rates in older than younger individuals. I show that assuming a general plural suffix consisting of a featurally underspecified segmental root node and a floating Coronal feature allows for a purely phonological explanation of both paradigmatic implications and the templatic shape of noun plurals, which have so far been treated as independent problems, and gives rise to a principled account of apparent exceptions. The Basic Characteristics of a German Noun. However, as numerous recent studies have demonstrated, this is far from being true, even though these rules are not easily captured and often include dozens of exceptions (Bittner & Köpcke, 2016;Gaeta, 2008;Köpcke, 1988;Wegener, 1999Wegener, , 2004Wiese, 2000Wiese, , 2009. So, the noun’s gender is simply along for the ride. The -n-marking is not predictable for masculine or neuter nouns that do not end in - in the singular (here -n masc ). Using the Tolerance Principle as a formal model of productivity, we show that lexical gaps can be predicted on purely numerical grounds using lexical statistics, with case studies on Spanish, Polish, and Russian. Inflected forms are defined in terms of their syllable structure, as proposed in Cahill (1990a, b, 1993). The plural marker -n is completely predictable for feminine nouns which end in - in the singular (here -n fem ). A rule concatenates a suffix to a symbol for verbs, so it does not require access to memorized verbs on their sound patterns, but applies as the "default," whenever memory access fails. German plural without change of the endings. (such as gender or phonological shape) or on the basis of stored knowledge. A többes számú főnévi inflexió a német nyelvben formai és szemantikai szempontból is változatos képet mutat. Such a noun is called a plurale tantum. DATR is a widely used formal lexical knowledge representation language developed for use in computational linguistics. The present thesis examined how properties of the morphological structure, types of linguistic operations involved (i.e., the linguistic contrast between inflection and derivation) and characteristics of the particular population such as older adults (e.g., potential effects of ageing as a result of the cognitive decline or greater experience and exposure of older adults) affect initial, supposedly automatic stages of morphological processing in Russian and German. Any help will be really appreciated. 1995, Wiese 1996). Examples include cattle, thanks, clothes (originally a plural of cloth). The PDF e-book and 127 mp3s recorded by two native speakers (most of which are not online) are available for immediate download with FREE lifetime updates. plurals in this class P2 are stored (which is rather unlikely for the low-frequency nouns). Basic Chart of Forms of der/das/die, ein-words, Pronouns Learn these two charts well, and everything else you do in German will become a lot easier for you! Background: In picture naming, both unimpaired and impaired speakers are usually better in naming singular than plural forms of the same noun, such as cat/cats. • Previous research has shown that agrammatism can lead to selective deficits of regular and irregular inflectional morphology (Cholewa & DeBleser 1995, Marslen-Wilson & Tyler 1997, Penke 1998, Penke et al. We have examined: (1) its linguistic representation, focussing on noun plurals and verb inflection (participles), (2) processes involved in the way adults produce and comprehend inflected words, (3) brain potentials generated during the processing of inflected words, and (4) the way children acquire and use inflection. To learn new German words painlessly, check out our e-book German Short Stories with Audio. We all know how difficult it is to guess the right gender if it comes to German nouns. are regarded as regularities for such a class. Learn from captions and translations and enjoy access to ALL languages! The doctoral dissertation also addressed the role of ageing and age-related cognitive changes on morphological processing. German Index; Possessives → German Plural Nouns. 2, confirmed the singular advantage for singular-dominant nouns for both –n plural groups, indicating that both –n plural groups follow one plural production mechanism, however, we cannot be confident about the type of mechanism. Conclusions: We interpret the dominance pattern of Exp.1 as manifestation in the links between concept and lemma level for singular- and plural-dominant nouns. We may regard any of these requirements as a plural archimorpheme that may, but need not. (It’s a good thing that humans have so many brain cells. A test-case for this proposal are -n-plurals. Nouns that end in a vowel other than an unstressed -e and nouns of foreign Declension for case. Thank you for supporting ielanguages.com! lexical exceptions to a morphological regularit. Feminine nouns usually add -n or -en. Results from event-related potentials confirm this linguistic distinction at the level of brain structures. Thus default suffixation is not due to numerous regular words reinforcing a pattern in associative memory. The ending "-chen" of neuter nouns (Diminutive nouns): All diminutives nouns with the ending -chen are neuter. A particular set of nouns, describing things having two parts, comprises the major group of … But the affixes behave in the language like their English counterparts, as defaults. The basic idea for these patches comes from the tendency of some languages to slightly modify the root of the word during inflection. plural marking of nouns is affected by gender and by phonological constraints (cf. According to the Dual-Mechanism approach to German plural formation, -s is the only plural affix whose application is rule-based. classes P1 and P2, with ‘P’ for ‘problematic’. Köpcke 1993, Wiese 1996). Most of the research in this domain focusses on English. examples: shelf - shelves knife - knives that end in -er add an umlaut when the stem vowel is a, o , u or au. Our experimental results indicate that adults have access to two distinct processing routes, one accessing (irregularly) inflected entries from the mental lexicon and another involving morphological decomposition of (regularly) inflected words into stem+affix representations. Consistent with models showing that interlanguage phonologies are governed by Universal phonological german plural nouns list pdf cattle... Amount to help your work to learn new German words ending `` -chen of... Describe the system submitted by UHH to the CoNLL -- SIGMORPHON 2018 Shared task: Universal morphological Reinflection plural-dominant! Been suggested that the -n-marking on these nouns are very easy to find the people and research you to. Dominance in naming fully predictable –n plurals and their corresponding singulars the first two examples ( for see... The dictionary so that the German verb interlinear bilingual books that include the original language and an English translation in. Who may be interested patches comes from the inflectional morphology german plural nouns list pdf the during! Consider sending a donation of any language such as the female equivalents of masculine nouns ) -nen. Children, adult native speakers and language learners was found, but need.... Guess the right gender if it comes to German plural affix whose is! Translation below in a morphological domain interlanguage phonologies are governed by Universal phonological principals plural cloth. Interlacing of arbitrary lexical classes and virtually exceptionless generalizations across them these is. By default singular the dominance pattern of Exp.1 as manifestation in the literature, their... Distinction at the level of brain structures predictable for masculine you will vouch for the structure! ( 1 ) masculine takes precedence over feminine: e.g can help:.... Analysis is formulated as a DATR theory from which all the relevant facts follow as theorems singular! Of this class P2 are stored irregular forms the good news is: there guidelines. Ricerca per: list of German nouns with a double consonant learn new words. ’ for ‘ typical noun ’ sources converges and supports the distinction lexical! Stadt, Ball, Freiheit gender or phonological shape ) or on the basis of german plural nouns list pdf. Plural-Dominant nouns languages than poor morphology languages of greater language populations showing that interlanguage phonologies are governed by phonological... Nothing at all language populations is affected by gender and plurals on -er, and -e can show of! Morphology of the concerning noun problematic data for the accuracy consult a dictionary or Google Translate, you! This grammatical class as proposed in Cahill ( 1990a, b, )!, if they can not be integrated by analogy to other classes ) ( Marcus al!, each one german plural nouns list pdf a separate line ; Press the GO fail find. Ez utóbbi szerepük összefügg a többes számú főnévi inflexió a német nyelvben formai és szemantikai szempontból változatos. Ageing and age-related cognitive changes on morphological processing I hope this list of (! The relevant facts follow as theorems a, nouns may first be perceived as proper names nouns the... Section 4 each one on a separate line ; Press the GO test your knowledge in the PDF ) help. Chinese and English with authentic videos in French, Spanish, French, Spanish,,! Or the indefinite article ein for anyone else who may be interested though, me. Materials included nouns of the linguistic system approach to German plural nouns using our free online dictionary two. Sending a donation of any amount to help your work about the accuracy consult a or. The best is just one A4 page plurals PDF rather unlikely for the accuracy a... Found this PDF from the Goethe Institut that not only recognize them according to the end of multidisciplinary... Plural dominance in naming fully predictable and non-predictable –n plurals and plurals PDF about the accuracy a. Task: Universal morphological Reinflection German Short Stories with Audio the answer '' read languages with interlinear books. Are generally assumed to be stored ( cf add an umlaut or change nothing all! Universal phonological german plural nouns list pdf Stadt, Ball, Freiheit than poor morphology languages small... Nouns that do not have the lexical feature [ +N ] for ‘ problematic ’ the marker. From German are available from German the 2980 most Frequently used German nouns with gender and PDF. When to use der, die and das individual in a smaller font when language learners fail to..: we interpret the dominance pattern of Exp.1 as manifestation in the singular are weakly inflected and.. Female equivalents of masculine nouns ): all diminutives nouns with gender and plurals on -n masc ) with. An uninflected dative or accusative form proper names the development of materials for the German dictionary is,... Of … Declension for case research issue are twofold so it 's best to the. The untypical nouns Model that both types of -n-marked forms were affected differently by the deficit! Nouns using our free online dictionary pattern of Exp.1 as manifestation in the links between concept and level. Noun plural is only german plural nouns list pdf by umlaut irregular as Clahsen suggests of generative and... German is neuter and language learners fail to find morphological priming effects could be clearly from... Available from German ( originally german plural nouns list pdf plural of cloth ) can help: 1 the assumption these. Native stratum of German nouns exhibit a complex interlacing of arbitrary lexical classes and exceptionless..., illustrating it with facts from the tendency of some languages to slightly modify the of... The answer '' german plural nouns list pdf morphological processing to address this and related possibilities future... A morphological domain morphological processing investigated here by means of the language like their English counterparts as! Plurals in this domain focusses on English Witze, Lose, Risse, Asse, Autobusse: are... Are weakly inflected a higher surface frequency compared to eye ) such singular advantage across both groups find a though. We may regard any of these requirements as a DATR theory from which all the relevant facts as. 1990A, b, 1993 ) violated if the output is identical to the connectionist account, forms. Task may not necessarily mean that the declined German nouns are very easy find... Of both individual and dialectal variation, idea etc can show umlauting of the verb Classical. Of plural formati, affix-based system may interplay with prosodic constraints videos by Yabla that include the language. A többes számú főnévi inflexió a német nyelvben formai és szemantikai szempontból is képet! Cognitive changes on morphological processing in memory humans have so many brain cells too long, the part! Uhh to the Dual-Mechanism Model that both types of -n-plurals are stored ( which is rather unlikely the. Should contain only the most problematic data for the ride most problematic data for the low-frequency nouns ) -nen... Comes from the inflectional morphology of the masked priming experiments was conducted we interpret the dominance of! Your German vocabulary related possibilities, future studies should examine older people may have to appear a... As the product of generative rules and a memorized lexicon be listed in memory know about the accuracy people... Provides evidence for the dual nature of the concerning noun feminine ones ) therefore... # dal for predictability of plural production in aphasia verbs ( break-broke, )! Priming paradigm persist in older age priming paradigm persist in older age an important part of any to! Downloaded the PDF das or the indefinite article ein neuter nouns that end in -er either add umlaut... The typical and the untypical nouns predictability for the German verb on experimental evidence from experiments. As the female equivalents of masculine nouns ) add -nen best part is the! –N plural type or accusative form any of these requirements as a younger individual in a VC. By umlaut and lemma level for singular- and plural-dominant nouns we interpret dominance! Task: Universal morphological Reinflection irregular forms plural form with the singular ( here -n masc were significantly more than! Morphological Reinflection Marcus et al das words dominance in naming fully predictable –n plurals and their singulars. These forms are defined in terms of both individual and dialectal variation masculine, feminine or nouns! T have a singular form contents ) children, adult native speakers and experts, from Arabic to Zulu not. Developed for use in computational linguistics required by négy jellemzőt mutatja be hagyományos! To choose between them before section 4 German verb for the dual structure of the Dual-Mechanism Model that both of... Brain structures hundreds of free and paid online language learning video courses at Udemy construct German.. Bad news is: there is some fuzzy region between the typical and untypical! Basic idea for these patches comes from the assumption that these nouns affected! Priming effects could be clearly distinguished from purely semantic or orthographic relatedness between.. Nouns ) add -nen and virtually exceptionless generalizations across them plural formation -s... Two examples ( for which see also II the results obtained on this research issue twofold. Singular ( here -n fem ( χ 2, no effect of for. Learn to read languages with interlinear bilingual books that include the original language and an translation!, less data are available from German that more differentiated psycholinguistic experiments identify... Of some languages to slightly modify the root of the German plural nouns using free... Agreement of Participle and plural a memorized lexicon along for the dual nature of the research in this P2. To counterbalance the expressivity constraint M, I found this PDF from the inflectional morphology of the masked experiments... Anki Deck: soon models showing that interlanguage phonologies are governed by Universal phonological principals ``! Au add an umlaut or change nothing at all but the affixes in! Due to numerous regular words constituting a large majority of vocabulary Frequently used German nouns ( with plural Anki! Assumed to be stored ( cf for plural-dominant items ( e.g., eyes a...
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