The "Kerala phenomenon" or "Kerala model of development" of very high human development and in comparison low economic development has resulted from a strong service sector.:48:1. Relief comes with the monsoon.  The studies point to the development of ancient Kerala society and its culture beginning from the Paleolithic Age, through the Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic Ages. The climate of India comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a vast geographic scale and varied topography, making generalizations difficult.  Kerala's ecotourism destinations include 12 wildlife sanctuaries and two national parks: Periyar Tiger Reserve, Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Thattekad Bird Sanctuary, Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Muthanga Wildlife Sanctuary, Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary, Eravikulam National Park, and Silent Valley National Park are the most popular among them. :5–7 As of 2017, the state has the highest number of diabetes patients and also the highest prevalence rate of the disease in India. In northwestern India region, virtually cloudless conditions prevail in October and November, resulting in wide diurnal temperature swings; as in much of the Deccan Plateau, they register at 16–20 °C (61–68 °F). Traditionally, North Indians note six seasons or Ritu, each about two months long.  Eastern India's climate is much milder, experiencing moderately warm days and cool nights. Prevailing westerlies carry aerosols along the southern margins of the sheer-faced Tibetan Plateau towards eastern India and the Bay of Bengal.  Trivandrum International Airport, managed by the Airport Authority of India, is among the oldest existing airports in South India. "Fort Cochin in Kerala 1750–1830 The Social Condition of a Dutch Community in an Indian Milieu."  The "triumvirate of poets" (Kavithrayam): Kumaran Asan, Vallathol Narayana Menon, and Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer, are recognised for moving Keralite poetry away from archaic sophistry and metaphysics, and towards a more lyrical mode. Some occupational communities such as Kaniyar were known as native medicine men in relation to the practice of such streams of medical systems, apart from their traditional vocation. During summer, the Bay of Bengal is subject to intense heating, giving rise to humid and unstable air masses that morph into cyclones. The state has a coast of 590 km (370 mi) and the width of the state varies between 11 and 121 kilometres (7 and 75 mi). Like the rest of the north, Bihar also experiences dust-storms, thunderstorms and dust raising winds during the hot season. 2015. , Kerala has been a major spice exporter since 3000 BCE, according to Sumerian records and it is still referred to as the "Garden of Spices" or as the "Spice Garden of India".  In respect of female empowerment, some negative factors such as higher suicide rate, lower share of earned income, child marriage, complaints of sexual harassment and limited freedom are reported. India's northernmost areas are subject to a montane, or alpine, climate.  Some festivals include Poorams, the best known of these being the Thrissur Pooram.  An agreement, known as "Treaty of Mavelikkara", was signed by the Dutch and Travancore in 1753, according to which the Dutch were compelled to detach from all political involvement in the region. The northern side of the western Himalayas, also known as the trans-Himalayan belt, has a cold desert climate. Out of the 4,000 flowering plant species; 1,272 of which are endemic to Kerala, 900 are medicinal, and 159 are threatened.  Most of the castes and communities in Kerala have rich collections of folk songs and ballads associated with a variety of themes; Vadakkan Pattukal (Northern Ballads), Thekkan pattukal (Southern Ballads), Vanchi pattukal (Boat Songs), Mappila Pattukal (Muslim songs) and Pallipattukal (Church songs) are a few of them..  Many advertisements branded Kerala with the tagline Kerala, God's Own Country. New Statesman. Kunhali, V. "Muslim Communities in Kerala to 1798" PhD Dissertation Aligarh Muslim University (1986).  Kannur had an airstrip used for commercial aviation as early as 1935 when Tata airlines operated weekly flights between Mumbai and Thiruvananthapuram – stopping at Goa and Kannur.  On 1 October 2011, Kerala became the first state in the country to have at least one banking facility in every village.  The value of Rome's annual trade with the region was estimated at around 50,000,000 sesterces; contemporary Sangam literature describes Roman ships coming to Muziris in Kerala, laden with gold to exchange for pepper. More than 10,000 festivals are celebrated in the state annually and some animal lovers have sometimes raised concerns regarding the overwork of domesticated elephants during them. "The Kerala model in the time of COVID19: Rethinking state, society and democracy. :5 Kerala's 13.3% prevalence of low birth weight is higher than that of many first world nations. , Kerala's western coastal belt is relatively flat compared to the eastern region,:33 and is criss-crossed by a network of interconnected brackish canals, lakes, estuaries, and rivers known as the Kerala Backwaters. Factors, such as high rates of female literacy, education, work participation and life expectancy, along with favourable sex ratio, contributed to it.  In Malayalam literature, elephants are referred to as the "sons of the sahya". The hottest month for the western and southern regions of the country is April; for most of North India, it is May.  The Kuttanad region, also known as The Rice Bowl of Kerala, has the lowest altitude in India. These include five classical dance forms: Kathakali, Mohiniyattam, Koodiyattom, Thullal and Krishnanattam, which originated and developed in the temple theatres during the classical period under the patronage of royal houses.  As a consequence of centuries of mixing with colonial immigrants, beginning with the Portuguese, Dutch, French, British and other Europeans, there is a community of Anglo-Indians in Kerala of mixed European and Indian parentage or ancestry.  Traffic in Kerala has been growing at a rate of 10–11% every year, resulting in high traffic and pressure on the roads.  Before this, the highest reliable temperature reading was 50.6 °C (123.1 °F) in Alwar, Rajasthan in 1955. , During the Triassic period of some 251–199.6 Ma, the Indian subcontinent was part of a vast supercontinent known as Pangaea.  Almost all of India is flood-prone, and extreme precipitation events, such as flash floods and torrential rains, have become increasingly common in central India over the past several decades, coinciding with rising temperatures.  In the Malabar Rebellion, Mappila Muslims of Malabar rioted against Hindu zamindars and the British Raj. , Buddhism was popular in the time of Ashoka but vanished by the 12th century CE. They are locally known as "muniyara", derived from muni (hermit or sage) and ara (dolmen).  The Western Ghats rise on average to 1,500 metres (4,900 feet) above sea level, while the highest peaks reach around 2,500 metres (8,200 feet). Lying between northern latitudes 8°18' and 12°48' and eastern longitudes 74°52' and 77°22', Kerala experiences humid tropical rainforest climate with some cyclones. There is a significant Tamil population in Palakkad and Idukki districts.  The acts ensure a clear demarcation of power among these institutions.  The state also is regarded as the "least corrupt Indian state" according to the surveys conducted by CMS Indian Corruption Study (CMS-ICS) Transparency International (2005) and India Today (1997).  A study commissioned by the Kerala State Planning Board, suggested that the state look for other reliable sources of income, instead of relying on remittances to finance its expenditure. Thalassery Cuisine is varied and is a blend of many influences. The average maximum temperature is 32 degrees while the average minimum temperature is 23 degrees at this time. The southwest summer monsoon, a four-month period when massive convective thunderstorms dominate India's weather, is Earth's most productive wet season. Kerala's culture and traditions, coupled with its varied demographics, have made the state one of the most popular tourist destinations in India.  Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar and Kerala Varma Valiakoi Thampuran are noted for their contribution to Malayalam prose. That is from the month November till the middle of February.  His son and successor, Tipu Sultan, launched campaigns against the expanding British East India Company, resulting in two of the four Anglo-Mysore Wars. The temperatures in the north rise as the vertical rays of the Sun reach the Tropic of Cancer. , Kerala's sex ratio of 1.084 (females to males) is higher than that of the rest of India and is the only state where women outnumber men. The total growth of the farm sector has recorded a 4.39% increase in 2012–13, over a paltry 1.3% growth in the previous fiscal year. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar theorised, that Senguttuvan may have been inspired by the Parasurama legend, which was brought by early Aryan settlers. Adi Shankara was a religious philosopher who contributed to Hinduism and propagated the philosophy of Advaita. Winter and summer (November to May) are probably the best time to visit Kerala and also the peak tourist seasons.  The government is organised into the three branches: The local government bodies; Panchayat, Municipalities and Corporations have existed in Kerala since 1959, however, the major initiative to decentralise the governance was started in 1993, conforming to the constitutional amendments of central government in this direction. It strikes the Indian mainland around 1 June near the Malabar Coast of Kerala.  Major railway transport between Beypore–Tirur began on 12 March 1861, from Shoranur–Cochin Harbour section in 1902, from Kollam–Sengottai on 1 July 1904, Kollam–Thiruvananthapuram on 4 January 1918, from Nilambur-Shoranur in 1927, from Ernakulam–Kottayam in 1956, from Kottayam–Kollam in 1958, from Thiruvananthapuram–Kanyakumari in 1979 and from the Thrissur-Guruvayur Section in 1994. India's western coast, bordering the more placid Arabian Sea, experiences cyclones only rarely; these mainly strike Gujarat and, less frequently, Kerala. It has a lovely and equable condition during the month of January. :26, 46, 52 The mean daily temperature ranges from 19.8 °C to 36.7 °C.  Kerala's coastal regions are the most densely settled with population of 2022 persons per km2, 2.5 times the overall population density of the state, 859 persons per km2, leaving the eastern hills and mountains comparatively sparsely populated. Its non-tax revenues (excluding the shares from Union tax pool) of the Government of Kerala reached ₹145.87 billion (US$2.0 billion) in 2020-2021. The India Meteorological Department doubts the validity of 55 °C (131 °F) readings reported in Orissa during 2005. The average length of the rivers is 64 kilometres (40 mi). Another striking feature of summer is the Loo (wind). Areas south of the Himalayas are largely protected from cold winter winds coming in from the Asian interior. It is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. The KITE Kerala is a state owned special purpose company under education department of the Government of Kerala. These conditions, not hostile actions, caused more than 97% of the roughly 15,000 casualties suffered among Indian and Pakistani soldiers during the Siachen conflict.  There were major revolts in Kerala during the independence movement in the 20th century; most notable among them is the 1921 Malabar Rebellion and the social struggles in Travancore.  The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) has threatened the Kerala state government that it will give higher priority to other states in highway development since political commitment to better highways in Kerala has been lacking. ) By 1999–2000, the rural and urban poverty rates dropped to 10.0% and 9.6% respectively..  The elephant is the state animal of Kerala and is featured on the emblem of the Government of Kerala..  They lost to Dutch at Quilon after 1661 and later, the Portuguese left south-western coast. , Merchants from West Asia and Southern Europe established coastal posts and settlements in Kerala.  Officially, 9,803 people died from the storm; unofficial estimates place the death toll at over 10,000.  The rainy season begins in June. The 1737 Calcutta cyclone, the 1970 Bhola cyclone, and the 1991 Bangladesh cyclone rank among the most powerful cyclones to strike India, devastating the coasts of eastern India and neighbouring Bangladesh. Mahé, a part of the Indian union territory of Puducherry, though 647 kilometres (402 mi) away from it, is a coastal exclave surrounded by Kerala on all of its landward approaches.  In 2006–2007, the state topped the Education Development Index (EDI) of the 21 major states in India. As per the 2006–2007 census by SIDBI, there are 1,468,104 micro, small and medium enterprises in Kerala employing 3,031,272 people. North of the Krishna River, the summer monsoon is responsible for most rainfall; to the south, significant post-monsoon rainfall also occurs in October and November. Marine fossils have been found in an area near Changanassery, thus supporting the hypothesis. The third National Family Health Survey ranks Kerala first in "Institutional Delivery" with 100% births in medical facilities.  However, parts of West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Mumbai also receive minor precipitation from the north-east monsoon. While winters in some regions is just pleasant, it snows in North India. Spread over 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi), Kerala is the twenty-first largest Indian state by area. India's lowest recorded temperature was −60.0 °C (−76 °F) in Dras, Ladakh. The southern slopes of the western Himalayas, well-exposed to the monsoon, get heavy rainfall.  Rising population and development pressures, particularly from logging and tourism, cause deforestation. The young age of the region's hills result in labile rock formations, which are susceptible to slippages. Since the 73rd and 74th amendments to the Constitution of India, the local government institutions function as the third tier of government, which constitutes 14 District Panchayats, 152 Block Panchayats, 941 Grama Panchayats, 87 Municipalities, six Municipal Corporations and one Township. 458–56. In Madhya Pradesh which is towards the south-western side of the Gangetic Plain similar conditions prevail albeit with much less humidity levels.  The earliest Saint Thomas Christian Churches, Cheraman Jumu'ah Masjid (traditionally dated to "629 CE" by the Mappilas)—regarded as "the first mosque of India"—and Paradesi Synagogue (1568 CE)—the oldest active synagogue in the Commonwealth of Nations—were built in Kerala. Calicut International Airport, which was opened in 1988, is the second-oldest existing airport in Kerala and the oldest in the Malabar region.  In the early decades of the 19th century, the modern educational transformation of Kerala was triggered by the efforts of the Church Mission Society missionaries to promote mass education.  However, in the 14th century, Ravi Varma Kulashekhara (1299–1314) of the southern Venad kingdom was able to establish a short-lived supremacy over southern India.  Forest gardens are common and known by the name home gardens. However, from January to February, "western disturbances" bring heavy bursts of rain and snow. Winter Vacations (December to February) During these months, Kerala experiences cool dry weather and according to travel pundits, this is the peak touring season as this place receives a lot of tourist traffic. India's geography and geology are climatically pivotal: the Thar Desert in the northwest and the Himalayas in the north work in tandem to create a culturally and economically important monsoonal regime. :8 The state recorded 8.93% growth in enterprises from 1998 to 2005, higher than the national rate of 4.80%. During this season, the weather remains pleasant and cool which is perfect for a holiday at any of its destinations.  Kerala has only performed well recently in the Ranji Trophy cricket competition, in 2017–18 reaching the quarterfinals for the first time in history. Kashmir's highest recorded monthly snowfall occurred in February 1967, when 8.4 metres (27.6 ft) fell in Gulmarg, though the IMD has recorded snowdrifts up to 12 metres (39.4 ft) in several Kashmiri districts. Approximately 42,000 cancer cases are reported in the region annually.  We have Christmas 2020 Wishes, Funny Christmas wishes & Merry Christmas Wishes. The country's meteorological department follows the international standard of four seasons with some local adjustments: winter (January and February), summer (March, April and May), monsoon (rainy) season (June to September), and a post-monsoon period (October to December). Kerala – “God’s Own Country”, truly is a place that is on the must-see list of every travel lover and honeymooner. The Coastal State Kerala has cold Climate in the Month of January.  By 1999–2000, the rural and urban poverty rates dropped to 10.0% and 9.6% respectively.  CNN Travel listed Kerala amongst its '19 best places to visit in 2019'. Singh, Anjana. There are 67 navigable rivers in the state while the total length of inland waterways is 1,687 kilometres (1,048 mi). It is a region of barren, arid, frigid and wind-blown wastelands. In eastern Kerala, a drier tropical wet and dry climate prevails. The Ay kingdom in the deep south and the Ezhimala kingdom in the north formed the other kingdoms in the early years of the Common Era (CE). Despite the Himalayas being a barrier to the cold northerly winter winds, the Brahmaputra valley receives part of the frigid winds, thus lowering the temperature in Northeast India and Bangladesh. The region had been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. In Kerala, winter starts with the end of northeast monsoons, i.e. Soon after the monsoon season in the middle of December the winter season starts here with moderately cold up to the mid of February or March. "The ‘Kudumbashree woman’ and the Kerala model woman: Women and politics in contemporary Kerala. , The main factor behind this shift is the high summer temperature difference between Central Asia and the Indian Ocean. The coastal city of Kerala is the ideal destination to spend winter in … There are 15,892 schools under the SCERT, of which 5,986 are government schools, 8,183 are aided schools, and the rest are either un-aided or technical schools.  Malayalam Cinema has produced a few more notable personalities such as K.J. In southern India, the temperatures are higher on the east coast by a few degrees compared to the west coast. Some of the popular Malayalam television channels are Media One TV, Asianet, Asianet News, Asianet Plus, Asianet Movies, Surya TV, Kiran TV, Mazhavil Manorama, Manorama News, Kairali TV, Kairali WE, Kairali People, Flowers, Kappa TV, Amrita TV, Reporter TV, Jaihind, Jeevan TV, Mathrubhumi News, Kaumudy TV, Shalom TV, and Janam TV. , The state is wedged between the Lakshadweep Sea and the Western Ghats. In the last centuries BCE the coast became important to the Greeks and Romans for its spices, especially black pepper. 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